jeudi 26 avril 2018

Qui veut être mon futur doctorant?

Pour une fois, cette annonce me concerne directement !

A la rentrée prochaine, avec ma collègue Martine Hausberger, nous proposons un projet de doctorat intitulé : Bien-être des équidés en médiation. Tous les informations sont en ligne sur le site https://theses.u-bretagneloire.fr/bs/campagne-2018 (sujet déposé pour notre laboratoire ETHOS). 
Télécharger l'offre : https://theses.u-bretagneloire.fr/bs/campagne-2018/hc-ur1-bien-etre-des-equides-en-mediatio/@@download/pdf_fr/Ared_fiche_resume%20fran%C3%A7ais%202018.pdf
 
Attention : la date limite de réception des candidatures est le 31 mai (et non le 4 juin comme actuellement indiqué).

Projet de thèse Année 2018

Ecole doctorale « Cerveau‐Cognition-Comportement » (ED 158 3C)
Titre du projet : Codage efficace et contexte sensoriel dans le système olfactif de l’insecte

L’olfaction est essentielle dans le déterminisme des traits de vie des insectes (reproductio n, alimentation, défense). Elle leur permet de s’orienter vers des sources d’odeur avec une efficacité unique qui contribue à leur succès adaptatif. C’est tout particulièrement le cas chez les papillons de nuit chez lesquels les performances du système olfactif impliqué dans la perception de la phéromone sexuelle sont remarquables en termes de sélectivité, sensibilité et rapidité. Les papillons de nuit mâles démontrent des capacités exceptionnelles de localisation de la source (femelles émettrice de phéromone) à grande distance (centaines de mètres), dépassant de très loin les capacités des meilleures technologies actuellement disponibles. La localisation d’une source d’odeur est pourtant une tâche extrêmement difficile car, en conditions naturelles, il n’existe pas de gradient de concentration qui puisse être utilisé et la détection des molécules odorantes est intermittente. En effet, le panache d’odeur est profondément modifié par les turbulences atmosphériques, il est constitué de filaments d’odeur de durée, intensité et espacement très variables et dont la statistique change avec la distance à la source [1]. Ainsi, la dynamique des détections d’odeur est la seule information sur la position de sa source. De plus, les signaux spécifiques que sont les phéromones sont perçus au sein d’un paysage odorant complexe, bruité et changeant, qui peut significativement affecter le comportement de l’insecte. Des composés volatils émis par les plantes (CVP) interfèrent avec la perception de la phéromone [2].

Malgré les progrès notables réalisés dans la description quantitative des fonctions du système olfactif de l’insecte [3], nous ne comprenons toujours pas comment l’efficacité du traitement des informations sensorielles peut se maintenir en dépit de la variabilité considérable des environnements
odorants naturels. Pour aborder cette question, ce projet de thèse vise à :
- Recréer au laboratoire des scènes olfactives réalistes sur les plans qualitatif (nature des composés, en particulier les CVP représentatifs d’un écosystème donné), quantitatif (concentration des constituants du panache) et dynamique (structure temporelle des puffs d’odeur).
- Enregistrer par des techniques d’électrophysiologie bien maîtrisées au laboratoire les réponses à différentes scènes olfactives de neurones des deux premières couches du système olfactif de l’insecte : i) neurones récepteurs olfactifs responsables de la transduction olfactive et ii) neurones du lobe antennaire, le centre primaire de l’intégration olfactive.
- Analyser comment le codage olfactif dépend du bruit de fond odorant. En collaboration avec L. Kostal (Dept de Neuroscience computationnelle, Institut de Physiology, Prague), une axe d’analysedes données électrophysiologiques sera basé sur l’hypothèse du codage efficace, un modèle théorique du codage sensoriel [4] (la représentation neuronale de stimuli sous forme d’émission de potentiels d’action). Selon cette hypothèse, les réponses nerveuses sont adaptées via des processus évolutifs pour encoder de façon optimale les stimuli de l’environnement naturel d’un organisme. Il s’agit d’une méthode générale pour aborder la question du codage nerveux.

Les objectifs de ce projet sont :
- L’analyse des performances de codage phéromonal (codage intensitif et temporel) à partir des réponses des neurones olfactifs périphériques et centraux.
- L’étude de l’ajustement de la précision de codage à la statistique de scènes olfactives réalistes.
- La mesure des effets d’environnement naturels de CVP sur le codage phéromonal.

La compréhension des capacités de codage du système olfactif des insectes représente un préalable indispensable à l’élucidation de leur(s) stratégie(s) d’orientation. Les enjeux socio-économiques de ce
projet concernent la lutte contre les insectes ravageurs et l’olfaction artificielle avec les robots traqueurs d’odeur.

Références
[1] Celani et al. (2014) Odor landscapes in turbulent environments. Phys. Rev. X 4, 041015.
[2] Dupuy et al. (2017) A background of a volatile plant compound alters neural and behavioral responses to the sex pheromone blend in a moth. Front Physiol 8:79.
[3] Jacob et al. (2017) Olfactory coding in the turbulent realm. PLoS Comput Biol 13(12):e1005870.
[4] Barlow (1961) Possible principles underlying the transformations of sensory messages, in Sensory
Communication, W.A. Rosenblith, Editor. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 217-234.

Direction de thèse - contact
Philippe LUCAS
Institut d’Ecologie et des Sciences de l’Environnement https://ieesparis.ufr918.upmc.fr/
Département d’Ecologie Sensorielle https://ieesparis.ufr918.upmc.fr/spip.php?article134
Equipe de Neuroéthologie de l’Olfaction https://ieesparis.ufr918.upmc.fr/spip.php?article136
INRA, route de St Cyr, 78026 Versailles Cedex
philippe.lucas@inra.fr - 01 30 83 37 37

Modalités de candidature et calendrier
Une seule candidature sur ce projet de thèse doit être validée par notre laboratoire avant le 4 juin 2018 pour être déposée sur le site de l’Ecole Doctorale. Les candidats sont donc invités à prendrecontact le plus rapidement possible avec le laboratoire. Les auditions des candidats sélectionnés auront lieu du 4 au 6 juillet 2018 (http://ed3c.upmc.fr/index.php/contrats-doctoraux-fr)

mercredi 25 avril 2018

research manager Succulent Karoo Research Station

Position as research assistant and as research manager (July 2018-November 2019
at the striped mouse project in South Africa,


We are looking for an extremely motivated and independent biology student with a master’s degree to join the striped mouse project in July / August 2018 at least until November 2019 and for a maximum of 3 years, first as research assistant (until October 2018) and afterwards as research manager. This position is suitable for somebody who would like to gain experience in field work and scientific management. Assistants / managers get free accommodation at the station and a compensation to cover their daily costs. Travel costs can be refunded by up to an additional R 12 000 / year. As such, the position compensates for all arising costs but does not represent a real employment.
As research manager you will work closely together with the station manager and both managers will share responsibilities. However, each will have specific main duties, but should also be able to deal with all other duties (for example when the other manager is on leave, or when a new manager has to be trained). Our current research manager will leave the project in October 2018. The new research manager will be instructed by the present research manager.
Skills needed: Good experience in field work and must good knowledge of behavioural ecology or a similar field of research. Experiences in working with small mammals, radio-tracking, blood sampling, living at a remote location are of advantage.
You must be hard-working, highly motivated, able to work independently, good in communicating with people, able to supervise others, and not afraid of snakes. You must have a drivers licence and you must love to live at a remote place in nature, without regular internet and cell-phone reception. Most importantly, you are fascinated by nature and science!
Great opportunity: This is a great opportunity to spend 1.5-3 years in Africa, acquiring important skills in field biology and project management, while improving your CV. These skills will become valuable whether you later continue with a PhD or other jobs. It will be very hard and demanding, but also a once in a life time experience!
Job description: Five working days a week (Mo, Tue, Thu, Fr, Sat), with Wednesday being used for a shopping trip to town (not counted as working day) and Sundays being free. Included are four weeks of holiday for 12 months, which has to be taken outside the main breeding season (August to November) during periods when other students are present at the research station.

Primary duties research manager / secondary duties station manager
·         Data:
o   Weekly data entry
o   Weekly data check
o   Monthly data backup
o   Monthly data report
o   Training and supervision of field assistants
o   Training of students and postdocs
o   Support for students and postdocs
o   Management of transmitters
o   Management of field and laboratory supplies

Primary duties station manager / secondary duties research manager
·         Technical support research station:
o   Water system incl. sewage system
o   Solar system
o   Gas bottles replacement
o   House and furniture
o   Running of the respirometry laboratory
o   Management of the captive colony
o   Management of the research station car
o   Management of bank account and cash box
o   Management of research station supplies

Compensation:
·         Free accommodation.
  • A monthly compensation of R 3 500, which is sufficient to pay all costs of living. This compensation will rise to R4 700 per month in November 2018, when the research assistant takes over the research manager position.
  • For travel costs, R12 000 per year can be refunded, but proof (receipts) must be presented for this. This refund is only payable after October 2019 and will not be paid if the person leaves earlier than agreed.
  • You will become an honorary researcher at the University of the Witwatersrand in the group of Prof. N. Pillay.
  • Scientific co-authorship will be possible if the manager contributes to the success of projects by not only collecting the majority of data, but also by data analysis and writing of the manuscript.
Responsibilities:
·         The manager has to cover the costs to get to the station, including travel costs and visa fees. For this, a refund can be paid (see above).
  • The manager needs to arrange for a health insurance covering him / her during the stay. A copy must be sent to C. Schradin before travelling to the stations.
Place and project: Succulent Karoo Research Station (SKRS) in the Goegap Nature Reserve near Springbok in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The research projects are on the socio-ecology of small mammals, studying ecological and physiological reasons of social behaviour, behavioural flexibility, and physiological adaptation.
Period: The new manager is expected to start in July / August 2018 and to stay at least until the end of November 2019, the end of the breeding season 2019. The agreement might be extended for a total period of up to 3 years.
How to apply? Please send a CV, a letter of motivation and the names and contact information of at least two scientists available for reference. The letter of motivation should state why you think you are the perfect candidate for this, and when you could start.
Application deadline: There is no deadline but the position is open until filled. Thus, when you are interested: send your application as soon as possible!

Further information under www.stripedmouse.com
Dr. Carsten Schradin, Director of the Succulent Karoo Research Station, a registered South African non-profit organization supporting research in organismic biology.

PhD Funded Studentship

Explore the bush-cricket (katydid) ear from various perspectives: structural, mechanical and physiological.

We are seeking an outstanding, highly motivated PhD student to work on an ERC Consolidator Award project entitled 'The Insect cochlea: a non-invasive path towards enhanced sound detectors' within the University of Lincoln’s School of Life Sciences.
The successful candidate will be passionate about biomechanics, acoustics, sensory and comparative biology and will investigate the implementation of non-invasive techniques to measure inner ear activity.
Informal enquiries may be made to Professor Fernando Montealegre-Zapata: fmontealegrez@lincoln.ac.uk
Applicants should have a first or higher upper second-class honours degree, and preferably a relevant Master’s degree (or equivalent experience) in sensory biology with substantial experience of excellent report-writing and English language communication skills, and ability to work to deadlines.
Suitably qualified candidates worldwide may apply, although International students must self-fund the difference between the International and UK/EU fee rate.
Applications must comprise: 1-page covering letter, 2-page research proposal, 2-page CV, and be e-mailed to Professor Montealegre-Z at fmontealegrez@lincoln.ac.uk. The letter and any communication should be in English. 
Start date: 2nd July 2018 or as soon as possible thereafter
£15,549.74 per annum stipend.
Tuition Fees (capped at UK/EU fee level) covered though the ERC Consolidator Award and the Graduate Teaching Assistantship (GTA), which requires the student to conduct up to 6 hours of teaching or related work per week.
Follow link for more details:

PhD Position in Trinity College Dublin, Ireland - Remote and Automatic Monitoring of Bird Populations

A fully funded PhD position is available in the Dept of Electronic & Electrical Engineering at Trinity College Dublin for a Sept 2018 start. The topic is “Remote and Automatic Monitoring of Bird Populations”. In short, the research combines aspects of signal processing for audio, speech and language analysis with machine learning in the realm of bird song. Full details of the position, including application process, are available at:

Please contact me at nharte@tcd.ie to discuss informally.

vendredi 20 avril 2018

Impact of predation by domestic cat long-term survey

As part of a PhD study, we are conducting a long term survey on predation by pet domestic cats. Any cat owners living in the UK is encouraged to participate, whether the cat is a hunter or not. Please have a look at our webpage to register. If you know other cat owners, please forward this e-mail since we hope to reach as many people as possible.