mercredi 14 mars 2018

Sujets de thèse mis au concours Université Caen Normandie

Ci dessous deux offres de thèse mises au concours à l’Ecole Doctorale Normande de Biologie Intégrative, Santé, Environnement dans le cadre de l’UMR 6552 EthoS (Rennes 1, Caen-Normandie, CNRS) pour la rentrée 2018.
Envoyez votre CV, vos notes de Master 1 et 2 (avec le classement), ainsi qu’une lettre de motivation avec des références à


Unité d’accueil : EthoS, Ethologie Animale et humaine (CNRS, Université Rennes 1, Université Caen Normandie)
Equipe d’accueil : NECC, Neuro-Ethologie Cognitive des Céphalopodes, Caen
Encadrant : L. DICKEL, Professeur en Biologie des Comportements
Emotion et prises de decision chez la seiche.
Grants : ANR-13-BSV7-0002 (à2018)-PRC/CNRS (à2021) –UMR CNRS 6552 EthoS (à2021)
Location : Caen CREC Plateforme éthologie des animaux marins (EAM, RIN-CPER 2020)-SMEL-Ben Gurion University Eilat-Beer Sheva (Israel) and Sinshu University, laboratory of Visual Ecology (Taïwan).
Emotional  states and  their  potential  underlying processes in animals are still under sharp debate.
This  PhD  subject  is  expected to  provide  new  insights about emotional  behaviours in a “sophisticated”  invertebrate: the  cuttlefish  (Sepia  officinalis).  Psychological  needs  of  invertebrate species remain largely unknown and unexplored.
We  aim  to  find  new  tools  and  knowledges  to  assess  cuttlefish  psychological  suffering  (negative  emotion)  or  well-being  (positive  emotion).  The  role  of  developmental  environment  in  individual  emotional  traits  will  be  determined.  The  ultimate  goal  is  to understand  the  evolutionary  roots  of  animal  emotion  and  primary  consciousness, fundamental issues in Biology and in Bioethics.
Step 1 : Characterizing emotion-like behaviour.
We  will  describe  and  assess  both  negative  and  positive  emotion-related  behaviours  in cuttlefish when placed in appropriate conditions.
Step 2 : Measuring emotion through cognitive bias.
Cuttlefish, the emotional state of which are known, will be confronted to ambiguous choice to determine whether negative emotional state can induce pessimistic choice, as assessed in the literature.
Step 3 : Effects of individual history in emotional traits
By exploring emotional traits of individual when previously reared in different conditions, it is  expected  to  determine  the  influence  of  individual  history  in  emotional  profiles (personality) in cuttlefish.
Grants obtained related to this project: ANR-13-BSV7-0002-01 (first year), PRCi CNRS CaenEilat  (IL)  (three years),  UMR  6552. Application  for  additional Grant :  ANRi  EThiCS  (2018-2022). This PhD will be done both in Caen, at the IUI of Eilat (IL) and possibly at the Sinshu University (Taïwan) with at least three research Short-Term Missions, granted by the PRC CNRS (2018-2020) and possibly ANR-PRCI ETHiCs (2018-2022) programs. 


Unité d’accueil : EthoS, Ethologie Animale et Humaine, CNRS, Université Rennes 1, Université Caen
Equipe d’accueil : NECC, Neuro-Ethologie Cognitive des Céphalopodes, Caen
Encadrant : L. DICKEL, Professeur en Biologie des Comportements
Visual ecology of the cuttlefish: effect of water turbidity on survival, development and reproduction.
Finances : ANR-13-BSV7-0002 (à2020)-PRC/CNRS (à2021) –UMR CNRS 6552 EthoS (à2021) Infrastuctures et compétences : CREC Plateforme éthologie des animaux marins (EAM, RIN-CPER 2020)-SMELBen Gurion University, Eilat campus.
Among marine animals, the cuttlefish possesses probably one of the more developed and sophisticated visual  system. Indeed, two thirds of its brain is devoted to the perception and the processing of visual inputs. Cephalopods’ visual system is, then, crucial for their survival and their reproduction. Cuttlefish visual acuity is equivalent to that of human. However, with only one retinal pigment, they are color blind, but they are sensitive to linear light polarization. They are able to perceive very small (<1 2000="" 2004="" 2008="" 2012="" 2013="" able="" al.="" allows="" along="" also="" amp="" and="" are="" arms="" artron="" between="" br="" but="" cartron="" channel="" clearer="" closely="" communicate="" darmaillacq="" demonstrated="" detect="" different="" differs="" each="" ed="" environmental="" especially="" et="" european="" eyes="" facilitates="" for="" gibba="" hashar="" high="" however="" in="" is="" latter="" light.="" light="" living="" low="" mating="" navigate="" nglish="" oal="" of="" officinalis="" or="" other="" perception="" polarization.="" polarization="" polarize="" potential="" prashadi="" predators="" pressures:="" prey="" probably="" ps="" related="" s.="" sea="" sensitivity="" shashar="" skin="" some="" species="" structures="" that="" the="" their="" them="" they="" this="" to="" turbid="" two="" under="" variation="" very="" water="" waters="" we="" while="" with="">A comparative study of PS will be led in S. officinalis and S. prashadi in the English Channel and the Red Sea, respectively:
-a- in situ measurement of the light properties on natural spawning sites of both species will be made.
-b- PS will be assessed on both species in different contexts (predation, defense, navigation).
-c- The use of PS by individuals in situ and/or in laboratory conditions will be assessed during reproduction (communication with conspecifics and spawning).
-c- Behavioural consequences of water turbidity during egg incubation will be assessed in newly-hatched cuttlefish of both species.

Darmaillacq AS, Shashar N (2008). Lack of polarization optomotor response in the cuttlefish Sepia elongata (d’Orbigny, 1845). Physiol. Behav. 94(4):616-620
Cartron L.,Josef N., Lerner A., McCusker S.D, DarmaillacqA-S., Dickel L. and Shashar N. (2013). Polarization vision can improve object detection in turbid waters by cuttlefish. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 447:80-85.
Cartron L, Darmaillacq AS, Jozet-Alves C, Shashar N, Dickel L (2012). Cuttlefish rely on both polarized light and landmarks for orientation. Anim. Cogn. 15(4): 591-596.
Shashar, Hagan, Boal, Hanlon (2000). Cuttlefish use polarization sensitivity in predation of silvery fish. Vis. Res. 40:71-75
Boal JG, Shashar N, Grable MM, Vaughan KH, Loew ER, Hanlon RT (2004). Behavioral Evidence for Intraspecific Signaling with Achromatic and Polarized Light by Cuttlefish. Behaviour 141(7): 837-861.
Romagny S. Darmaillacq AS, Guibé M., Bellanger C., Dickel L. Feel, smell and see in an egg: Emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo. J. Exp. Biol. 215 : 4125-4130
O'Brien CE, Mezrai N, Darmaillacq AS, Dickel L (2017) Behavioral development in embryonic and early juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), Dev. Psychobiol. 59(2) : 145-160